LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)




LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module and find a wide range of applications. A 16×2 LCD display is very basic module and is very commonly used in various devices and circuits.

A 16×2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5×7 pixel matrix.


Working Principle:

The liquid crystals used in the LCD are Twisted Nemantic (TN), a type of liquid crystals that are twisted at 90o with the surface. In this state, crystals allow the light to pass through the polarizer but on applying a voltage, they get untwisted and block the light to passing through the polarizer.The LCD controller in the form of COB IC sends the electric signals to the electrodes which are sandwiched in between the glasses. Electrodes apply the voltage to the corresponding crystals as per the signals received from the ICs. These crystals are then untwisted and blocks the light (from LED strip) making those area darker on the glass. By applying voltage to specific crystals, a desired shape is formed on the LCD.


  • 5 x 8 dots with cursor
  • Built-in controller (KS 0066 or Equivalent)
  • + 5V power supply (Also available for + 3V)
  • 1/16 duty cycle
  • B/L to be driven by pin 1, pin 2 or pin 15,

pin 16 or A.K (LED)

  • N.V. optional for + 3V power supply


Link to datasheet:×2.pdf

   Pin configuration:

  • Pin 1(VSS): GND
  • Pin 2(VDD): to 5v
  • Pin 3 (VEE): to GND through a 1k ohm resistor and to 5v through a 10k ohm resistor
  • Pin 4(RS): to Arduino pin 12
  • Pin 5(RW: to GND
  • Pin 6(E) to  Arduino pin 11
  • Pin 7(D0): to any analog or digital pin of arduino
  • Pin 8(D1): to any analog or digital pin of arduino
  • PIN 9(D2): to any analog or digital pin of arduino
  • Pin10(D3): to any analog or digital pin of arduino
  • Pin 11(D4): to any analog or digital pin of arduino
  • Pin 12(D5) : to any analog or digital pin of arduino
  • Pin 13(D6) : to any analog or digital pin of arduino
  • Pin 14 (D7) : to any analog or digital pin of arduino
  • Pin 15 to(LEDA): 5v through a 220 ohm resistor
  • Pin 16(LEDK): to GND

Note: decide the connection of pins(7  to 14 ) to arduino as per the data you want to show on LCD and the code.



  • It is used for electronics project to show desired data on the screen.
  • easily programmable
  • Have no limitation of displaying special & even custom characters , animations and so on.



PCB details:

      Connection with arduino:

Arduino code:

#include <LiquidCrystal.h>
/* Create object named lcd of the class LiquidCrystal */
LiquidCrystal lcd(13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3);         /* For 8-bit mode */
//LiquidCrystal lcd(13, 12, 11, 6, 5, 4, 3);  /* For 4-bit mode */

unsigned char Character1[8] = { 0x04, 0x1F, 0x11, 0x11, 0x1F, 0x1F, 0x1F, 0x1F };          /* Custom Character 1 */
unsigned char Character2[8] = { 0x01, 0x03, 0x07, 0x1F, 0x1F, 0x07, 0x03, 0x01 };          /* Custom Character 2 */

void setup() {
lcd.begin(16,2);      /* Initialize 16×2 LCD */
lcd.clear();    /* Clear the LCD */
lcd.createChar(0, Character1);    /* Generate custom character */
lcd.createChar(1, Character2);

void loop() {
lcd.setCursor(0,0); /* Set cursor to column 0 row 0 */
lcd.print(“Hello!!!!”);            /* Print data on display */
lcd.write(byte(0));    /* Write a character to display */