A breadboard is a solder less device for temporary prototype with electronics and test circuit designs. Most electronic components in electronic circuits can be interconnected by inserting their leads or terminals into the holes and then making connections through wires where appropriate. The breadboard has strips of metal underneath the board and connect the holes on the top of the board. The metal strips are laid out as shown below. Note that the top and bottom rows of holes are connected horizontally and split in the middle while the remaining holes are connected vertically.
Types of Breadboard:
- Full Size
- Half size
- Mini size
Inside connection of breadboard:
Internal connection of breadboard is as shown in image. As shown in image top and bottom row of breadboard is connected horizontally but split from the middle as shown. While remaining holes are connected vertically and also split from middle.
Note how all holes in the selected row are connected together, so the holes in the selected column. The set of connected holes can be called a node:
To interconnect the selected row (node A) and column (node B) a cable going from any hole in the row to any hole in the column is needed:
Now the selected column (node B) and row (node A) are interconnected:
- The purposeof the breadboard is to make quick electrical connections between components- like resistors, LEDs, capacitors, etc- so that you can test your circuit before permanently soldering it together.
- Breadboards have solderless connections that allow components to be changed quickly.
- The components are not damaged by heat from being continuously soldered.
- Breadboards are especially useful for integrated circuits which have many terminals.
- Breadboards are useful for teaching electronics where the use of hot soldering irons could be hazardous.
- It is reusable.
- Breadboards are only suitable for prototyping circuits with a few components. As more components and jumper wires are added, it becomes more difficult to follow where they lead as they cross over each other.
- Using colored jumper wires helps to avoid this problem but the number of colors is limited.
- Breadboards are not practical for prototyping integrated circuits which have thousands of connections, and surface-mounted components cannot be used because they don’t have wire terminals.
- Breadboards cannot be used for circuits that require high frequencies because the connecting strips have high resistance and stray capacitance. High voltages and currents cannot be used because they can cause arcing between the connecting strips.