2G VS 3G VS 4G VS 5G

Mobile communication had turned out to be well known in the most recent couple of years because of its quick change from 1G to 5G in the field of mobile technology. This change is because of the necessity of service compatible transmission of technology and high increment in telecom clients. Basically, Generation refers to change in nature of service compatible transmission technology and new frequency bands. In 1980, for the first time the mobile cellular system was introduced, and since then, the mobile communications had experienced tremendous changes which pursued its vast sustainment.

What are the differences between 2G, 3G, 4G LTE, and 5G networks?

  • Simply, the “G” stands for “GENERATION”. While connected to the internet, the speed of the connection depends upon the signal strength that is shown in abbreviations like 2G, 3G, and 4G, etc. on any mobile device. Each generation of wireless broadband is defined as a set of telephone network standards that describe the technological implementation of the system.
  • The aim of wireless communication is to provide high quality, reliable communication just like wired communication and each new generation represents a big leap in that direction. Mobile communication has become more popular in the last few years due to fast reform in mobile technology. For the comparison of 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G we first need to understand the key features of all these technologies.

     First Generation, 1G

    •  These telephones were the first and the foremost cell phones to be utilized, which was presented in 1982 and finished in mid-1990. It was utilized for voice benefits and depended on the technology called Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS). The AMPS framework was frequency modulated and utilized the frequency division multiple access (FDMA) with a channel limited to 30 KHz and with a frequency band of 824- 894 MHz
    • The primary highlights of 1G are: Speed- 2.4 Kbps, Allows voice brings in one nation, Use analog signal, Poor voice quality, Poor battery life, large phone measure, Limited capacity, poor handoff unwavering quality, Poor security, and Offered low level of spectrum efficiency.
    • It presents Mobile Technologies, for example, Mobile Telephone System (MTS), Advanced Mobile Telephone System (AMTS), Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS) and Push to Talk (PTT). It has low capacity, problematic hand-off, poor voice quality and no security at all since voice gets back to be played in radio towers, making these calls helpless to undesirable in listening stealthily by outsiders.
    • The main drawback of 1G technology is that it uses analog signals rather than digital signals, this is less effective means of transmitting information, it is slower, and the signals cannot reach as far in terms of secluded areas so 2G is coming to overcome these problems.



      • 2G refers to the second generation of mobile networks based on GSM. The radio signals used by the 1G network were analog, while 2G networks were digital. 2G capabilities were achieved by allowing multiple users on a single channel via multiplexing. During 2G, Cellular phones were used for data also along with voice. Some of the key features of 2G were:
        • Data speeds of up to 64 kbps
        • Use of digital signals instead of analog
        • Enabled services such as SMS and MMS (Multimedia Message)
        • Provided better quality voice calls
        • It used a bandwidth of 30 to 200 KHz


      • The 3G standard utilizes Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) as its core network architecture. 3G network combines aspects of the 2G network with new technologies and protocols to deliver a significantly faster data rate. By using packet switching, the original technology was improved to allow speeds up to 14 Mbps. It used Wide Band Wireless Network that increased clarity. It operates at a range of 2100MHz and has a bandwidth of 15-20MHz. Some of the main features of 3G are:
        • Speed of up to 2 Mbps
        • Increased bandwidth and data transfer rates
        • Send/receive large email messages
        • Large capacities and broadband capabilities


      International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) were the specifications by the International Telecommunication Union for the 3G network. Theoretically, 21.6 Mbps in the max speed of HSPA+.


  • The main difference between 3G and 4G is the data rate. There is also a huge difference between 3G and 4G technology. The key technologies that have made 4G possible are MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) and OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). The most important 4G standards are WiMAX and LTE. While 4G LTE is a major improvement over 3G speeds, it is technically not 4G. What is the difference between 4G and LTE?
  • Even after it was widely available, many networks were not up to the required speed of 4G. 4G LTE is a “fourth generation long term evolution”, capable of delivering a very fast and secure internet connection. Basically, 4G is the predetermined standard for mobile network connections. 4G LTE is the term given to the path which has to be followed to achieve those predefined standards. Some of the features of 4G LTE are:
    • Support interactive multimedia, voice, video
    • High speed, high capacity and low cost per bit (Speeds of up to 20 Mbps or more)
    • Global and scalable mobile networks.
    • Ad hoc and multi-hop networks.



      • 5G uses the rarely used radio millimeter bands in the 30 GHz to 300 GHz Testing of 5G range in mmWave has produced results approximately 500 meters from the tower. Using small cells, carriers using millimetre wave for the deployment of 5G can improve overall coverage area. Combined with Beamforming, small cells can deliver extremely fast coverage with low latency.
      • Low latency is one of 5G’s most important features. 5G uses a scalable orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) framework. 5G benefits greatly from this and can have latency as low as one millisecond with realistic estimates to be around 1 – 10 seconds. 5G is estimated to be 60 to 120 times fasterthan the average 4G latency.


      With speeds of up to 10 Gbps, 5G is set to be as much as 10 times faster than 4G. Following is a brief comparison of 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G.


As a customer point of perspective, the main divergence among present generations and coming 5G techniques ought to be as per the following

Lower latency, To help gadgets in the internet of things, Higher capacity then 4G, Latency decreased fundamentally contrast with LTE, Enhanced coverage, Concurrent vast number of connections for wireless sensors, Data rates approx. 100Mbps, Improved signaling efficiency, Enhanced and creative data coding techniques, Millimeter waves frequencies for wireless access and back haul utilize, Smart beam antenna systems, Bring down blackout problem, Not destructive for wellbeing, Less expensive traffic charges, World Wide Wireless web, More secure and SDR security, Lower battery utilizations, Numerous simultaneous data exchange ways, and Accommodating being used of artificial intelligent in human life for securing communications

Above examined brings up out the requirements for 5g. The fifth generation is to be another technology that will give all the available applications, by using just a single worldwide device and joining about the whole already alive communication infrastructure. Fifth generation stations will be empowered of an unlikely multimode and cognitive radio. The fifth-generation cellular networks will accentuation on the advancement of the user stations where stations will have passage to different wireless technologies at the same time and will combine different issues from different technologies. Also, the station will make the best choice between different wireless/cellular access network providers for likely service.

5G technology will be deployed by 2020. It provides the great feature to users, having higher data rate 1Gbps or higher. 5G support 4G+WWWW (4th Generation +Wireless World Wide Web). It operates on IPv6 protocol. Fifth generation technology utilizes CDMA and BDMA and millimeter wireless which approves speed is higher than 100Mbps at full speed and more prominent than 1Gbps at low speed. The fifth-generation networks work on encoding type known as OFDM. 5G aim to provides unlimited access and information at anywhere anytime with high speed. It is a complete wireless communication with no limitations. The fundamental highlights of 5G. It is exceptionally supportable to WWWW (wireless world wide web), High speed, high capacity, Provides substantial broadcasting of data in Gbps, Multi-media newspapers, watch TV programs with the clarity (HD clarity), Faster transmission that of the previous generation, Large phone memory, dialing speed, lucidity in sound/video, Support intelligent multimedia, voice, streaming video, web and other, and More successful and appealing.

Emerging Applications

• M2M Communication: Intelligent machines automatically done all data operations, like data generation, processing and transfer.

• Internet of things: Supports IoT concept which is large scale development smart homes as well as smart objects connected together via internet. Internet of things connecting “Anytime, Anyplace, Anyone, Anything”.

• Internet of vehicles: Supports vehicle to vehicle communication through internet and traffic, collision reduces. It provides low latency and high mobility connectivity.

• Health care: Advance sensor and communication technology enables health monitoring, real time communication, data storage. Wearable technology provides health care solution.

• Smart home and smart city: Applicable for smart homes and cities in automation, appliances, embedded system and security